Review of Recumbent Trikes Made in Australia
Nov.1998 Ian Humphries
Recumbent trikes sit side by side with the recumbent bicycle as perhaps the most exciting re-inventions of the cycling world and have the potential to provide the public with comfortable and fast non-polluting individual transport. Recumbent trikes are particularly infectious - ride on one for even a short time and you will start to see the world in a different light as well as from a different perspective - apart from being exceptional fun, you begin to wonder just why more people aren't riding them, and then begin to think just how much better this world might be if everyone were to replace their car (arguably a single occupant vehicle on most trips) or most of their car journeys with a human-powered trike! A ride on a recumbent trike has the potential to change the way you think about personal transport!
There were 7 trikes from 4 different Australian manufacturers present at the 1998 ACT HPV Challenge in Canberra, Australia and this provided the perfect opportunity to review the current state of the trike scene in Australia. There is little doubt that over the last half decade or so some Australian designers and builders have contributed very significantly to recumbent trike evolution and this looks set to continue with several innovative new machines appearing recently. The impetus for these manufacturers came from either the lofty desire to build something human powered that fulfils the role of a car or just to give people a comfortable, efficient and easy to ride alternative to the upright bicycle. Some manufacturers also provide vehicle frames and/or plans for schools to build up a vehicle for the very popular Pedal Prix races that are currently held in the Australian states of Queensland, South Australia and Victoria.
The aim of the trike testing was to compare the trikes as quantifiable as possible - comparing them side by side gave each tester a good idea of their relative merits. The initial rides provided the surprise that all have quite a different feel and character, even though each of the designers have adopted the "tadpole" or two wheels in front layout seen on the first of the modern recumbent trikes, the UK made Windcheetah designed by Mike Burrows about 20 years ago. The trikes here each seem to fill a different niche and will have different appeal. The Greenspeeds were the first of the new breed of low recumbent trike to appear in Australia, designed to be easy to ride, safe and practical human transport. They were also designed to improve the efficiency and comfort of the everyday cyclist, whether they are setting off to tour around Australia or the world, on a commute to work, or just for a shopping trip down to the local store.
The Greenspeed trikes made in Melbourne since 1990 have probably provided some if not all of the inspiration for the newer trike manufacturers in Australia and along the way set a very high standard by which others can be compared. They have certainly proven to be popular vehicles and have been exported to many countries around the world. They are a well proven and mature design, with a grand reputation and perhaps are the recumbent make with the best known identity among Aussie cycling enthusiasts. They were our defacto benchmark for these tests.
6 riders provided comments about the machines. The testers were experienced recumbent riders (eg I commute regularly 35km across Sydney on a Short Wheelbase Recumbent Bike) and most had built or were building their own machines, and included two riders who ride almost exclusively on trikes. None owned any of the manufacturers products, though some like myself had previously bought parts from Greenspeed's mail-order service.
The standard touring machine, the GTR, and the Sports Tourer, the GTS are both very refined machines - with excellent and predictable handling, and are demonstrably the most stable of the machines under review, due mostly to their wider track. Although the 800mm track / 900mm width does provide some greater difficulty in getting them through doorways and past the occasionally misplaced bollard, in practice the wider track provides little disadvantage over the other trikes at most obstructions as the excellent steering setup allows a very tight lock and very good turning. I was pleasantly surprised to be able to manoeuvre a GTS around the posts at the end of a suburban bike path not only without getting off but with precision and ease - although I would have a few problems with a trike on my regular commute, as local councils haven't made any of the bike path chicanes standard, and there are a few very narrow ones. I also have to consider, as you might, that I need to carry my HPV up and down stairs if I use a train on part of the trip. The added weight and space needed for a trike would make a difference to me and those around me during peak hour. An unladen GTR has the balance point at and can be lifted by the handlebars but carrying it with gear on the rack requires you to lift it by the seat. It can then be balanced using one arm with the seat on the hip.
The GTR and GTS
The GTR and GTS have the well-proven Sachs drum brakes with the crossed arm steering linkage front end. There is little to choose between them, the GTS having a more reclined seat, and narrower and lighter rims and tyres. These seemed to be of no advantage over the GTR's fatter Comp Pools when rolling, but the lighter weight of the GTS's wheels probably would be of some advantage accelerating and uphill. The more reclined GTS seat would also allow the rider to slip through the air slightly faster. If you are a heavy rider or tour with a big load it is recommended that you order the disk brake option as I have had two 100kg plus Greenspeed owners tell me the drums begin to fade on long mountain descents. The other cheaper option could be to add a third drag type brake to the rear wheel - either a drum or disk to provide a third source of heat dissipation.
The race trike
The Greenspeed race trikes are speed machines, the fastest commercially available unfaired trikes made anywhere in the world. Only a short time was spent reviewing the race trike but it is a manoeuvrable and fun machine - the current version weighed in at only 11.5kg. It was made from thin-walled cro-mo and Reynolds 531 tubes and had 349mm (16inch) front wheels and a 406mm (20inch) rear wheel with narrow high pressure tyres and a very aerodynamically reclined, 20 degrees from horizontal, mesh seat laced with elastic shock-cord. (A previous version I've seen used 20inch wheels all round.) It is steered by a single lever operated by the right hand, which also has the bar-end gear shifter, with a single rear wheel brake operated by the left on another (fixed) hand grip. While racing it is often seen sliding through corners under power, at its limits on only two wheels or with the rear wheel locked up to skid around tight hairpins!
The Greenspeeds have a long history of both expedition touring and in racing circles, and the design with the seat tubes running back from the cross member provides a triangulation in 3 dimensions, giving the frame excellent stiffness and a high strength to weight ratio. It is, to say the least, a well thought out design. Greenspeeds also are likely to be extremely durable with all tubes being either Reynolds 531 or an aircraft grade cro-mo alloy of steel. Each one is made to fit the customers size and requirements - for although most Greenspeeds look similar, Greenspeed choose the appropriate size and weight of tube used for each customer. You can also order the lightest tube-set on offer and this would provide a machine comparable in weight to just about any on the market. Greenspeed seem happy to discuss and cater to any individual requirement. The frame is set-up with braze-ons to attach front and rear lights, a quick-release flag and a standard touring pannier rack. An integral rear rack can be ordered which also improves frame stiffness further. The frame has grease nipples to make regreasing the brass kingpin bushings with a grease gun a simple maintenance task.
The seat is composed of a sewn plasticised open weave mesh material, with brass eyelets to allow it to be laced to the seat frame with elastic bungee/shock cord. It is a comfortable design, offers some suspension effect and is available at various reclined angles - 40 or 35 degrees on the GTR and an even more laid-back 30 degrees from the horizontal on the GTS. I have heard many rave at the comfort of this style of seat and only a few complaints - one reviewer questioned whether the bungee cord could, if the mesh is too loosely laced, provide unwanted pressure points on protruding bits of vertebrae.
Steering and Braking
The steering and handling of the Greenspeeds is excellent. The 800mm track allows enough room for the wheels to turn sufficiently to provide excellent manoeuvrability. Braking is via the reliable and long wearing Sachs drums. I recommend choosing the low-friction Gore / teflon lined cables for the brakes - they offer a very noticeable improvement over ordinary brake cables, and help to improve the braking when the drums are new and haven't quite bedded in, though you can also help this bedding in by unbolting the wheels and lightly sanding off any high spots on the brake shoes. The Sachs drum brakes require virtually no maintenance and the shoes are very slow to wear.
The standard parts on the GTR and GTS are well chosen and good quality - perhaps the only things that will need replacement at any interval, are the cables and tyres. I have heard of tyres wearing out quite quickly if the rider corners "enthusiastically" or if the adjustable front wheel alignment should go out of whack. Wheel building is top class and rims should last a long time without rim brakes sanding them away. The Shimano bar-end shifters are probably the best shifters made, foolproof, reliable, and with a friction mode - the GTS has an narrow eight speed rear cluster and uses the new extra narrow nine speed chain. Whilst this set-up worked well during the test, I'd opt for the more standard 7 speed cluster as found on the GTR and a standard narrow chain if going touring.
The addition of a Sachs 3x7 hub and derailleur gear system as standard provides the rider with the widest possible gear range, including suitably high gears, which are sometimes difficult to achieve with a small 406mm drive wheel. It also allows the useful ability to change the internal hub gears when stationary, but does require a spanner to remove the wheel to fix a flat, and fiddling around with the internal hub gearing cable after reinstallation.
Greenspeed also offer many potential accessories - one of which is mudguards / fenders on the front wheels - I like the idea of riding a trike on those days when the roads are made treacherous and slippery by rain, but only if I could fit mudguards to each front wheel so as to avoid the gritty slop normally thrown up by these wheels - Greenspeed has finally worked out a good method of attaching these, via a kingpin extension. Development of a full fairing, which adds further to a trikes all-weather capability and potentially to its speed, is also nearing completion. As well, there are many gearing options, and for travel, the S+S coupling version allows the trike to be dismantled to fit into a suitcase and this is proving a popular option. Mirrors and a speedo can also be fitted neatly to optional extensions of the kingpins - a mirror is recommended.
It is apparent that the Greenspeeds still excel as refined examples of tadpole trikes. The Greenspeeds have been intelligently designed and the impressive attention to detail shows, from the clean and neat chain management to the ability to lock the brake levers when stationary, so the trike doesn't roll away. I liked the GTS over the GTR on this test, probably because I prefer the more reclined and faster 30 degree seat angle. Otherwise its difficult to choose between the GTS and GTR - if pressed perhaps, because I'm light I'd go for a lightweight version of the GTS frameset with GTR drive-train, perhaps swapping the largest two chainrings for higher tooth versions to eliminate the Sachs 3x7. Given the quality and refinement of the Greenspeeds it seems safe to predict they will at least maintain their desirability and the new entrants will find their niche in providing people a lower cost opportunity to experience the thrills, excitement and potential of trikes.
With the GTR priced at A$4400 and a GTS at A$5200, it is easy to dismiss the Greenspeeds as expensive, though they are not anywhere near the most expensive cycle nor even the most expensive trike on the planet - the UK Windcheetah at about $6000 earns that mantle. Greenspeeds are however, the equal of any, and a buyer of the base model 21 speed Greenspeed GT trike at A$3700 can even be assured of that. The frame-set or parts can also be ordered separately and built up at home to reduce the expense. Greenspeed also manufacture tandem trikes and hand-cranked machines.
The MR Components "Swift"
Michael Rogan has designed and built numerous pedal prix trikes and custom HPVs - he has even ventured into the world of Human Powered 4-wheeled over-snow-mobiles! The Swift tested was the touring version, with a triple chain-ring setup, the standard model having just a dual-chainring setup.
The Swift frame is the usual cruciform design with triangulation via the fixed seat tubes - the frame is stiff and strong - the main difference between the Swift and the others on test here being that the main Hi-tensile steel frame members are of rectangular cross section. The Swift has a history in the pedal prix races and is very robust. Michael has also tested the robustness of the frame on very rough off-road sections and expresses great confidence in its ability to withstand punishment. A sliding boom provides easy size adjustment and the Swift has an optional and novel under-seat "linear pulley system" to take up excess chain.
The seat frame is integral with the frame and wrapping nylon webbing around the seat frame forms the seat. The webbing is nicely woven together to stop it moving about and it was comfortable over the test period. The seat frame itself is nicely contoured, giving it a good appearance. The provision of a handy pocketed neck support as standard is a good feature. This trike was Michael's demo model and it appeared the seat was a little more reclined than the specified 40 degrees, a good move as the more reclined the seat, the more the body weight is spread out, decreasing the probability of pressure points. The seat also was variable in length with the upper section telescoping to achieve a perfect fit.
Steering and braking
The steering is by the "all-in-one" design which Michael says he first used on pedal prix vehicles a few years ago, with the handlebars and grips attaching directly to the kingpin and the handlebars extending further to form the arm to attach the front-wheel rim-brakes. The track-rod connecting the steering mechanism of each front wheel attaches to small steering arms behind the kingpins. The steering is free of the dreaded bump-steer and Ackerman compensation is maintained for all turning radii. The frame has adjustable steering stops as standard. The kingpin mechanism fits into tough self-lubricating Teflon impregnated nylon bushings and should need little maintenance. The brakes with short cable runs from lever to brakes were very good, the equal of the Sachs drums in the dry - the disadvantages of rim brakes is that they wear the rims, can have reduced stopping power in the wet and may perhaps overheat the tyres and tubes on long twisty mountain descents, as the small rims have to absorb lots of frictional heat as generally these quite aerodynamic HPVs rocket downhill at quite significant speeds. The addition of a third drag type brake to the rear wheel - either a drum or disk to provide a third source of heat dissipation may be justified if riding with a heavy load. The test trike was fitted with BMX side-pull brakes although V-brakes are now standard - making one complaint I had irrelevant - the cables from the side-pulls seemed to get in the way when gripping the handlebars after signalling or drinking - the V-brakes cabling should be neater and avoid such problems.
The front wheel hubs are machined to fit the larger axle and sealed cartridge bearings and all the wheels have a quick release mechanism standard. The shifters are low-end Shimano thumb-shifters, while the front derailleur was also one of the least expensive models - perhaps there is some room to upgrade some parts - but on this test everything seemed to function and there weren't any complaints from any of the reviewers. Wheels seem well built and the tyres are the excellent Tioga Comp Pools. The addition of a mirror and flag as standard also must be commended, although the mirror extending from the handlebar grip did vibrate excessively on rough tarmac, reducing its usefulness.
The trike comes standard with most desirable options, although I'd specify a mirror with stiffer mounting hardware and specify a computer braze-on on the main frame because it too suffered from excessive vibration on the steering arm. A pannier rack is optional. Mudguards should be easy to fit.
At a specified 15kg it is among the lighter trikes - the simplified steering arrangement obviously contributing to weight savings, along with a lighter rear hub. It has a great range of adjustment, and the frame, seat and chain length can be adjusted quickly to suit a wide range of riders - a good feature if the trike is to be used by a few riders. This design is quite innovative in these features, and although its rectangular tubing may make it look a little less refined its elegance should be appreciated. With a seat reclined more than standard the test trike cut the air well.
The "Swift" standard double chainring model at A$1700 is the least expensive trike by a small margin - but comes with quite a few desirable features. It is an excellent buy. The touring model as tested is A$1880.
The Tri-Sled "Cool-Cruza" and "Fast-back"
Built by Ben Goodall, these trikes are very similar, both eye-catching machines in blue with yellow and black accessories. The main differences between the two being that the Fast-Back has a more reclined and lower seat. Compared to the Greenspeeds the Tri-Sleds have a narrower track which is compensated for on the Fast-back by a lower seat height and lower centre of gravity, but makes lifting a wheel slightly easier on the Cool-Cruza. Both machines are reasonably light and build quality is good.
The Tri-Sled trikes are elegantly designed - the layout obviously owes its heritage to the Greenspeeds with seat tubes running back from the cross member to provide triangulation in 3 dimensions, but with the main tubes of large diameter Hi-tensile steel, not cro-mo steel (cro-mo can be requested). In practice the use of Hi-tensile steel should provide very little disadvantage, as tubes of this diameter are very stiff - perhaps only the most extreme use could show up any shortcomings. The trikes are well proven and compete regularly in the tough 24hr pedal prix races. There is very little MIG weld splatter and everything is powder coated. One quibble was with the naked front derailleur cable, which simply wraps around the crank housing. In time this will rub through the powder coat. As well, the fixed point of the cable is back on the frame, so any adjustment of the boom will upset the front derailleur adjustment - this could be neatened up.
The seat frame is again of steel, forming an integral structure with the main frame, with a long length of wide nylon webbing wound around the seat tubes to form the covering upon which you recline. This approach functions reasonably well and is secured at one end by a nylon buckle which provides a simple method to retension or remove the webbing. The webbing does appear to move around a bit though and was in need or readjustment at the end of the weekend - it would be a simple matter to make this webbing in three pieces so a rider could have different tension on different parts of the seat. This would probably reduce the need to readjust the webbing quite so often. The seat on the Fast-Back was the narrowest on test, and while I didn't have any problems, one reviewer thought that it didn't offer sufficient support. A wider seat can be ordered.
Steering and braking
The Cool-Cruza and Fast-Back both have a simple direct steering control via the "all-in-one" design as per the "Swift". It has however, been simplified slightly by attaching the track-rod directly to the brake-arm / handlebars. Sealed cartridge bearings are fitted to the upgraded front hub axles. Ackermann alignment and centre-point steering to eliminate bump-steer are standard. The steering works very well apart from parking-lot turns at extreme lock where the steering tends to get a little heavy. The kingpin mechanism turns in tough self-lubricating Teflon impregnated nylon bushes and should need little maintenance. The hand position is high compared with the Greenspeeds, but does allow for mounting of mirrors etc. A mirror was not fitted to the test trike so it was not possible to tell whether it would have suffered from vibration on rough tarmac like the one on the Swift. The V-brakes were very impressive - designed to slow fast moving mountain bikes with one or two fingers, when you add two to the front of a vehicle with such a low c-o-g it is possible to generate quite amazing braking forces, although with such power the brakes did tend to grab a bit. Emergency braking in a corner might be a bit tricky - it is possible to lift the rear wheel, and so staying right side up under such circumstances might need a bit of experience. A modulating feature to limit brake power (found on some V-brakes) might be a desirable safety feature. The disadvantages of rim brakes are outlined above - the addition of a third drag type brake to the rear wheel is again recommended to provide an alternative source of heat dissipation if carrying a heavy load.
The torque required to change gear using the Gripshifts is sometimes transmitted to the steering, though the Gripshifts can easily be changed for something else. The front wheels on the Fast-Back have a quick release mechanism standard (optional on the Cool-Cruza). Other parts are mid-range quality and should last well.
The benefit of the all-in-one steering is that mudguards should be easy to mount onto the brake-arms - though I'd request the suitable braze-ons for this during construction. It will be necessary to request light-mounting-tabs if you wish to fit lights.
The Tri-Sleds are elegant, neatly assembled and well-built machines - a good product with, I think, a certain future in the HPV market place. Although the steering does not have the sophistication of the Greenspeeds or the Sirocco it none-the-less works very well - the slight heaviness in the steering on very tight turns at low speeds would be something I think that you would get used to and forget about very quickly if this was the only trike you rode. The Cool-Cruza with a 40 degree seat angle was slower than the Fast-Back, but would make a good commuter and touring machine and the more upright seat is better for seeing over a front fairing if you wish to add one to provide weather protection.
Although Ben is talking about raising his prices - for the moment they seem to be fixed and at under A$2000 - the Tri-Sleds are excellent value!
The Freedom HPV "Sirocco"
Peter Holloway of Freedom HPV / Cycle Science is an experienced recumbent designer and builder with a commitment that spans many years. He also offers a short wheelbase recumbent bike called the "Tailwind" and has developed a compact long wheelbase bike model called the "Breeze". The Sirocco is the Freedom HPV model that is aimed to provide the 3 wheel stability of the Greenspeed trikes at a slightly lower cost - and it does this by simplifying some of the Greenspeed's features.
The Sirocco offers two sizes of frame and a sliding seat adjustment instead of a sliding crank/boom arrangement. The fit for different riders can be adjusted without tools. The frame uses larger diameter tubing for both the cross member and main spine compared to the other trikes on test, to compensate for the lack of frame triangulation which is normally provided by a fixed seat. The frame as tested was stiff and nicely welded - TIG welds appear slightly smoother than MIG - the test trike was powder-coated a brilliant red. The seat also reclines handily and so it can be set to suit each rider and conditions - a nice feature if you need to lay it all the way back to overcome a serious head wind - and it can also be removed, along with the wheels to pack the trike into a smaller package if necessary. The frame has braze-ons for adding the Sachs 3x7 gearing as standard. The Sirocco is unusual among the trikes here in that it uses two standard cycle headsets as the kingpin bearings.
The seat is good quality mesh over a cro-mo steel frame and is supportive and comfortable - a standard design used on the other Freedom HPV models as well. It does however lack the shaped shoulder section of the other trikes on test and this may be important when the seat is fully reclined, when a shoulder/neck support becomes more important. It shouldn't be a concern if you ride with the seat up around 35-40 degrees. The seat as tested was laced at the rear with shock-cord, although the no-extra-cost option of side-lacing is possible and may be desirable to avoid minor pressure points.
Steering and braking
The trike shared the Greenspeed crossed steering rod arrangement, with additional adjustment in the handlebars which pivot from under the seat - this gave it the excellent feel of the Greenspeeds at the cost of a little extra complexity. The Sirocco's handling was excellent and always predictable. The braking was via twin Sachs drums and they worked well, however I'd opt for low friction cables to improve their function further.
Comments were that paint and component quality was good but one reviewer thought there was one place where the chain routing could be improved. He noticed the potential for chain-slap on the front cross member, especially if a small granny gear is fitted - due probably to a slightly lower crank position, which also placed the heels very close to the ground at the bottom of the pedal stroke. A tubular nylon chain guide would probably be all that is necessary to alleviate the above problems and would also save the leg from the occasional greasy encounter. The test trike was fitted with fat lightly treaded BMX freestyle tyres (1.9") which provided excellent grip, made for a very comfortable ride, but were a little noisy at speed.
Freedom HPV have the resources to offer almost any option you care to wish for, including the Sachs 3x7 rear hub, and S&S couplers. An integral rack can be ordered and although the test trike lacked a front light mount on the derailleur post, it is specified as a standard feature and so should appear on all future frames. A custom spar is available to mount a mirror and mudguards.
The Sirocco is a new model from an established builder with a good reputation and history - the minor criticisms that are outlined above will undoubtedly be sorted out on future models. The Sirocco provides an excellent package and would make an excellent choice for touring or commuting. 2 of the reviewers thought that the Sirocco was probably the pick of the trikes here, if price and features were weighed up. With a few small improvements to the chain management and the ability to fit through narrower openings than the Greenspeeds, it looks certain to be popular.
At an approximate price of A$3,200 this trike looks very good value for money.
It is obvious that each manufacturer has chosen a different goal or set of goals when designing their particular entry into the trike market. The Sirocco is the closest to the Greenspeed in design, components, and price. The Tri-Sleds and Swift both opt for a simplified steering arrangement and for powerful V-brakes over the more expensive Sachs drums. The manufacturers must be commended because the trikes seem to satisfy the design objectives and will, I think, also more than satisfy the requirements of the more-modest-budget triker. Each of the newer trikes have a narrower track than the Greenspeeds - with the reasoning that they may make the trike easier to wheel through doorways and narrow openings, and take up a few less centimetres of road space. Although this meant that it made each of these trikes a little easier to get up onto two wheels, the inherent stability of these tadpole designs made this seem like no big deal - each trike felt neutral even at the limits of cornering and with just a bit of body lean into the corner they were all easily controlled.
Testing these trikes provided me with a fun HPV experience - I was especially at home hopping from the 20 degree seat of my low racer recumbent bike to the more reclined race and sports oriented trikes on test here - I found screaming around on the Tri-Sled Fast-Back especially enjoyable - it was as fun to ride as any of the other machines on test and as fast as all but the Greenspeed race trike. With the V-brakes and 44mm tyres it is a very fast and road-worthy machine. Two reviewers chose the "Sirocco" as their favourite. Everyone acknowledged the build quality and near perfection of Greenspeeds. Although a large price variation exists between the trikes tested here and the differences are hard to detect for the uninitiated, perhaps the answer could be summed up by one of the reviewers who suggested that "You get what you pay for".
It became obvious by the end of the test though, that a potential buyer wont find a better selection of recumbent tadpole trikes anywhere else in the world - there is certainly one to suit your purpose among these. The new models fill very adequately the gaping holes at the mid-price-range level in the trike market. Each is well finished with durable powder-coat paint and all steer, handle and brake very well. Each trike tested has its merits, they are all fun to ride and perform well - one reviewer described them all as "ownable"!
Note: specifications, prices and options may change - contact the manufacturer for confirmation.
Thanks to Giles Puckett, Don Thomas, Peter Heal, Chris Curtis and Jeremy Lawrence for their help and comments and to the respective manufacturers for supplying test vehicles.
Footnote 1: One custom builder of recumbent trikes who could not supply a trike for this review is Wayne Kotzur, "The Bikecologist", manufacturer of recumbent bikes, trikes and HPVs, phone +61 2 6236 8265 work,12 Harp St Gundaroo NSW 2620 (near Canberra) e-mail: email@example.com. Wayne is an experienced builder (over 10 years commercial experience ), builds commuting and touring trikes and was last seen working on an interesting folding trike design.
Footnote 2: A more recent entry to the world of trikes is the LoGo recumbent trike built by Martin Arnold in Spearwood, WA. Phone: +61-8-94349089The specs for each trike are included for download in the comprehensive spec sheet(rtf), but it is probably best to contact the manufacturer.
The Roll-down comparisons / Performance:
The trikes were rolled down one hill and coasted to a stop up another. Two riders did all six trikes. Tables give roll out distance ranked from best (longest) to worst. The two riders differed in weight by about 10kg, while all the trikes weighed within 2 kg of one another.
|Rider 1- GP||Rider 2 - JL|
|1. GS GTR||1.GS GTR|
|2.GS GTS||2.MR Swift|
|3.MR Swift (the first 3 very close)||3.GS GTS|
|4.TS Fastback||4.TS Fastback|
|5.TS Cruza||5.TS Cruza / Sirocco (equal)|